Tuesday, January 30, 2007
Omega Point (Tipler)
The Omega Point is a term used by Tulane University professor of mathematics and physics Frank J. Tipler to describe a hypothetical cosmological scenario in the far future of the Universe. According to the omega point theory, as the Universe comes to an end in a Big Crunch, the computational capacity of the Universe is capable of increasing at a sufficient rate that this computation rate is accelerating exponentially faster than time runs out. In principle, a simulation run on this Universe-computer can thus continue forever in its own terms, even though the external Universe lasts only a finite time. This theory assumes that certain cosmological variables prove that the universe will eventually contract, and that there will be intelligent civilizations in existence at the appropriate time to exploit the computational capacity of such an environment.
Tipler identifies this asymptotic state of infinite information capacity with God. The implication of this theory for present-day humans is that this ultimate cosmic computer will essentially be able to resurrect everyone who has ever lived, by recreating all possible quantum brain states within the master simulation. This would manifest as a simulated reality, except without the necessity for physical bodies in "reality". From the perspective of the inhabitant, the Omega Point represents an infinite-duration afterlife, which could take any imaginable form due to its virtual nature.
See Also: Computational universe theory, David Deutsch, Simulated reality
References: Essays by Tipler on the Omega Point.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Omega Point (Tipler)". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Sunday, January 28, 2007
List of articles on criticism in Wikipedia
Wikipedia has articles that criticize everything from certain religions to cartoons.
Business and Economics: Criticism of debt, Criticism of Wal-Mart, Criticisms of capitalism, Criticism of Microsoft
Media: Criticism of Family Guy, Criticism of George Lucas, Criticism of Pokémon, Criticisms of The Da Vinci Code
Computers, video games, and internet: Criticism of software engineering, Criticism of Internet Explorer, Criticisms of Mozilla Firefox, Criticism of Pokémon, Criticism of Wikipedia, Criticism of World of Warcraft, Criticisms of Windows XP
Politicians: Criticism of Hugo Chávez
Religion: Criticism of religion, Criticism of atheism, Criticism of Christianity, Criticism of Islam, Criticism of Judaism, Criticism of Hinduism, Criticism of the Bible, Criticism of Mormonism, Criticism of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Criticism of Pope John Paul II, Criticism of the Catholic Church,
Criticism of Prem Rawat, Criticism of Scientology
Politics: Criticism of libertarianism, Criticism of communism, Criticisms of socialism, Criticisms of electoralism, Criticism of Noam Chomsky
Society: Criticism of the clothes free movement,
Science: Criticisms of Anti-Scientific Viewpoints,
Current events: Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina,
Criticism of War on Terrorism, Criticism of the Iraq War, Criticisms of the 9/11 Commission Report,
Friday, January 26, 2007
Human cheese is cheese produced from the breast milk of female humans. It has been proposed as a Vegan alternative to cheeses produced by other mammals, such as goats and cows. Economic issues: The production, labour costs, shipping, and other expenses involved in producing cheese from female humans would require the product to be sold at a relatively higher price than cheese produced by other mammals, at a rough estimate of 200 U.S. dollars per pound ($440/kg). The very existence of human cheese is unknown.
There are currently no well-known documented cases of human cheese being produced. Human breast milk is on average 5% protein, which is a smaller concentration than that in both goat and cow cheese. Because protein is necessary for milk to curdle, the low percentage of protein in human milk may prevent curdling from occurring.
References: http://oxhouse.org/~brent/writing/human-cheese.txt, http://news.ufl.edu/2000/01/13/breast-feed/, http://www.saanendoah.com/compare.html
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Human Cheese. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Wednesday, January 24, 2007
The phrase "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu v'Rabbeinu Melech haMoshiach l'olam vo'ed!" is used by many Lubavitch Chassidic Jews to pray and proclaim that the seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902-1994), is the awaited messiah as prophesied in the Hebrew Scriptures. It may be translated "(Long [shall]) Live our Master, our Teacher, and our Rabbi, the King Messiah, for ever and ever." Or "Our Master and Teacher King Moshiach (messiah) Shall Live Forever (and Ever)". The phrase can be seen printed in various settings, notably on pamphlets, posters and small prayer cards. It is chanted by many people at the end of daily communal prayers in Lubavitch congregations, including the main Lubavitch synagogue in Crown Heights, "770". Yechi has a complex and controversial history.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Yechi". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Monday, January 22, 2007
In algebraic geometry, a branch of mathematics, a Zariski surface is a surface over a field of characteristic p > 0 such there is a dominant inseparable map of degree p from the projective plane to the surface. In particular, all Zariski surfaces are unirational. They were named after Oscar Zariski who used them in 1958 to give examples of unirational surfaces in characteristic p > 0 that are not rational. (In characteristic 0 by contrast, Castelnuovo's theorem implies that all unirational surfaces are rational.) Zariski surfaces are birational to surfaces in affine 3-space A^3 defined by irreducible polynomials of the form
z^p = f(x, y).
Saturday, January 20, 2007
Sexuality of Abraham Lincoln
The sexuality of Abraham Lincoln is a topic of dispute. His relations with women were either problematic or distant, while those with a number of men were warm. Captain David Derickson was Lincoln's bodyguard and intimate companion between September 1862 and April 1863. They shared a bed during the absences of Lincoln's wife, until Derickson was promoted in 1863 . Derickson was twice married and fathered ten children, but whatever the exact level of intimacy of the relationship, it was definitely the subject of gossip. That their sleeping arrangements raised eyebrows at the time is indicated by the reaction of Elizabeth Woodbury Fox, the wife of Lincoln's naval aide. After hearing the rumor, she wrote in her diary for November 16, 1862, "Tish says, Oh, there is a Bucktail soldier here devoted to the president, drives with him, and when Mrs. L is not home, sleeps with him. What stuff!
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sexuality of Abraham Lincoln". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Thursday, January 18, 2007
List of notable moustaches in art and fiction
Moustaches have been used by artists to make characters distinctive as with Dick Dastardly or the video game character Mario. They have also been or to make a social or political point as with Marcel Duchamp's parody of the Mona Lisa which adds a goatee and moustache or the moustachioed self portraits of Frida Kahlo. At least one fictional moustache has been so notable that a whole style has been named after it, the Fu Manchu moustache.
List of moustaches in art and fiction: Gomez Addams of The Addams Family, Asterix, Obelix and most of the other Gauls in the comic strip Asterix, The Bad, actor Lee Van Cleef in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, The Beatles as Sergeant Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, Duchamp's parody of the Mona Lisa adds a goatee and moustache, Blake from the comic strip Blake and Mortimer, Borat, Captain Hook,
Clo-Clo from the Belgian comic strip Nero, The Daltons, the bandits from the comic strip Lucky Luke,
Dick Dastardly, Duncan from He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, Basil Fawlty in the tv-series Fawlty Towers, Self portraits of Frida Kahlo, Fu Manchu and the Fu Manchu moustache, Ned Flanders in The Simpsons, Gobelijn from the Belgian comic strip Jommeke, Harcourt Fenton Mudd in the Star Trek: TOS episodes "Mudd's Women" and "I, Mudd", Earl Hickey, the character from My Name Is Earl, his moustache is often a source of comedy on the show, Kabapu from Excel Saga, Kiekeboe, Belgian comic character, Jason King, the hedonistic, womanizing, trash novel writing dandy portrayed by actor Peter Wyngarde, The Laughing Cavalier, (1624) , a famous painting by the Dutch Baroque artist Frans Hals, Laughing Cavalier, 1624 by Frans Hals, Manuel in the tv-series Fawlty Towers,
Mario, a famous video game fictional character owned by Nintendo. Also, his brother Luigi and their arch-enemies Wario and Waluigi, Ming the Merciless from Flash Gordon, Mirror Spock from Star Trek - Mirror, Mirror, Meneer Pheip from the Belgian comic strip Nero, Rich Uncle Pennybags the Monopoly guy, L.H.O.O.Q. copy of the Mona Lisa by Marcel Duchamp which shows her with a moustache, Pelinore in Walt Disney's The Sword in the Stone, Hercule Poirot, a character in books written by Agatha Christie, Ignatius J. Reilly, slovenly protagonist in John Kennedy Toole's New Orleans set novel, A Confederacy of Dunces, Det. Andy Sipowicz, main protagonist of NYPD Blue, Mike Stivic on All in the Family, Superdupont, mock superhero in a well-known comic book series, Thomson and Thompson in the comic strip The Adventures of Tintin by Hergé (see also Borduria, a fictional country with a moustache as national emblem, from the same series), Wimpey character in the Popeye cartoon series, famous for his sparse bristly moustache, Yosemite Sam from Looney Tunes, The Mustache Commander of StreetWars, V from V for Vendetta, Males of the Viltrumite species in the comic book Invincible. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List of notable moustaches in art and fiction". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Tuesday, January 16, 2007
Overlinking in a webpage or another hyperlinked text is the characteristic of having too many hyperlinks. It is characterised by:
- A large proportion of the words in each sentence being rendered as links.
- Links that have little information content, such as linking on specific years like 1995, or unnecessary linking of common words used in the common way, for which which the reader can be expected to understand the word's full meaning in context, without any hyperlink help.
- A link for any single term is excessively repeated in the same article. "Excessive" is usually more than one link for the same term in a line or a paragraph, since in this case one or more duplicate links will almost certainly then appear needlessly on the viewer's screen. Remember, the purpose of links is to direct the reader to a new spot at the point(s) where the reader is most likely to take a temporary detour due to needing more information. Providing more link samples for the same word in a short space (as in the bad example of this paragraph) doesn't help much.
Overlinking is often due to writers who believe that the text is improved by any addition of links, and who seem to have a "regularization" obsession - that all words which are the same, should appear the same.
References: Dvorak, John C.. "Missing Links", PC Magazine, April 2002. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Overlinking". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Monday, January 15, 2007
A nano reef is a type of tiny Marine aquarium, a reef tank of less than 20 gallons. The exact limit that distinguishes a nano reef from a regular reef is somewhat ill-defined (some claim that anything less than 40 gallons would qualify), but 20 gallons seems to be the generally accepted limit.
Nano reefs have become quite popular in recent years among fish keeping hobbyists, primarily because of low costs, smaller size, and maintainability. The burgeoning interest in this niche of marine aquarium science has fostered several notable contributions ranging from specific consumer products such as specialized aquarium filters, compact high intensity lighting systems and smaller circulation pumps.
Pico reef: Another term gaining popularity is pico reef, which is used to refer to nano reef aquariums of three gallons or less. These tanks require even more dilligence with regard to water changes and attention to filtration because the small water volume provides little room for error. One must take care when stocking these tiny tanks because introducing too many inhabitants can easily overload the tank's ablility to process wastes.
References: "Setting Up a Nano Reef Tank" by Jeff Yeramian,
Catalina Water Company - Supplier of boxed seawater for marine aquariums, Nano-Reef.com - A source for nano reef aquarium information. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Nano Reef". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Saturday, January 13, 2007
The Monty Hell Problem
The Monty Hell problem is a paradox in probability theory involving infinite sequences of actions. As described in a post in the usenet group rec.puzzles, the problem consists of choosing between two alternative strategies for banking your money while spending an eternity confined in Hell. The assumptions of the problem are that each day you are paid $10 in ten $1 bills, but must turn over $1 each day to the Devil to pay for the heat. You are not allowed to handle your money yourself, but instead must choose one of two bankers:
- Monty, who puts each day's bills in a large sack, then chooses one of the bills from the sack uniformly at random (including bills from previous days) to give to the Devil.
- Marilyn, who carefully removes one bill from the stack of ten bills to give to the Devil, and then places the remaining nine bills in her sack.
The goal is to maximize your wealth at the end of your eternal confinement, which occurs on a hypothetical day ω (see Transfinite number), which occurs after all finitely-numbered days.
(The problem is sometimes stated such that Marilyn removes nine bills and only puts one in the sack. Here, for simplicity, they remove the same amount of money daily.)
The paradox: Let us start with the obvious explanation why it doesn't make any difference which banker you choose: after t days, both Monty and Marilyn have 9t dollars. Since these quantities both grow without limit, either will give you infinitely many dollars in the end. There is another explanation that favors Marilyn, and depends on the assumption that dollar bills have individual identities, rather than just being counters for total wealth. Once any particular dollar bill is placed in the sack, on each and every subsequent day, there is a chance that Monty will take that particular dollar bill out again and give it to the Devil. Since there are an infinite number of days thereafter, it would seem that the probability that this will happen eventually is, in fact, 100% (and this intuition is upheld by probability theory, as shown in the appendix). Therefore, each dollar bill that Monty put into the sack will eventually be taken out. None of them will be in the sack on day ω! Monty almost always leaves you with nothing, and you are better off with Marilyn. This is true even though at any finite time Monty and Marilyn have the same number of dollar bills in their sacks.
The paradox is the apparent contradiction between these two answers. The paradox is particularly painful because the obvious explanation requires very little mathematics, making the second answer look suspiciously complex.
Friday, January 12, 2007
WildRose is an independent Australian vocalist, song writer and actress. She is recognised for her unique cross of classic rock and classical piano, as well as her ability to cross genres in general. Her musical influences include Billy Joel, Tori Amos and Darren Hayes. WildRose is a self taught pianist and also writes teenage novels. At 16, WildRose left high school to pursue her musical career, and less than 6 months later, was signed to a recording contract with a local Perth producer. However, the contact was bogus and after months of nothing happening, Rose finally walked away from the contract, but was left with a massive financial debt to the family member who had invested in her. In late 2005, an investor approached her, and with his financial support, WR along with two other people formed Eclipsical Creations Pty Ltd early 2006.
References: WildRose - Official Site, WildRose Official Myspace - Official Myspace [http://www.abc.net.au/rage/playlist/archive/2006/20060901.htm RAGE Playlist - Video Release PlayList, [http://www.eclipsicalcreations.com/ Eclipsical Creations Company Website - Official Site, [http://www.matchboxrecordings.co.uk/ Matchbox Recordings - Matchbox Recordings, [http://www.isonliveradio.com/ Ison Live Radio
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Wild Rose". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Wednesday, January 10, 2007
Loudest Band in the World
Which band is the loudest band in the world is a subject of some dispute in musical circles. Many bands have claimed to be the loudest, measuring this in various ways including with decibel meters at concerts and by engineering analysis of the compact discs on which their albums are published. Ashare attributes this competition to a notion that "loudness equals greatness", a notion that he states to be clearly false.
This notion pervades rock music, however, to the extent that it has been satirized. In the mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap Nigel Tufnel states that Spinal Tap "is one louder" than all other bands because the knobs on the band's amplifiers are calibrated up to 11, instead of up to 10. Ironically, as a consequence of this real bands and musicians started buying equipment whose knobs went up to 11, or even higher, with Eddie Van Halen reputedly being the first to do so.
The Who was once listed as the record holder, at 126 decibels, measured at a distance of 32 metres from the speakers at a concert at Fillmore East on 1976-05-31. Other previous record holders include Deep Purple (117 decibels), The Rolling Stones (which replaced Deep Purple), and KISS. Metallica has styled itself the "loudest band in the world". However, after one concert on 1997-11-11, which the band dubbed the "Million Decibel March", the Philadelphia Inquirer reported that "neighbours who [had] feared the worst from the self-styled Loudest Band in the World complained more about the sound from the news choppers circling overhead".
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Loudest Band in the World". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Tuesday, January 09, 2007
Prairie Muffins is a term used by some conservative evangelical Christians in the United States to refer to married women who choose to pursue what they hold as the biblical role of women as quiet homemakers who protect the innocence of their children. The idea is taken from the New Testament passage in Titus 2:4-5:
Admonish the young women to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, chaste, homemakers, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be blasphemed. NKJV
The origin of the term stems from an incident when R.C. Sproul, Jr. in a good-natured, joking, and in-passing manner referred to his wife as a "Prairie Muffin." The term is proudly worn by those who self-define as such, although people who see the term and its lifestyle as form of patriarchy may use it as a pejorative. The husbands of those who self-define as Prairie Muffins sometimes refer to themselves as "Prairie Dawgs". Prairie Muffin women are likely to be Quiverfull, homeschoolers, and to live in a rural area.
See also: Patriarchy, Quiverfull
References: Are you a Prairie Muffin?, Prairie Muffin Update: So Called "Biblical Patriarchy" on the Rise, The Prairie Muffin Manifesto by Carmon Friedrich, The Prairie Muffin Quiz. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Prairie Muffins". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Sunday, January 07, 2007
Bio art is one of the most recent developments of contemporary art; it takes biotechnologies as a medium. Transgenics, tissue culture, morphologic modifications, are some of the many techniques those artists use, posing technological, ethical and social questions.
Those experimentations may involve the artist's own body (implants, skin culture, animal blood transfusion), and often embody traditional fears and hopes linked to the technology.... While Bio art can be said to have several originators, Eduardo Kac is considered by many as the emblematic bio artist and a leading figure in the field. He is best know for his living work, the rabbit Alba, and for his "Genesis". Kac originally introduced the term "bio art" in relation to his work "Time Capsule", in 1997. Another fundamental name is George Gessert, who started to hybridize and create new flowers already in the early 1980s. Joe Davis is also a bio artist whose recent works include the Microvenus, where the artist embedded messages into a bacterial genome. His Audio Microscope was able to translate light into sound and this allowed you to hear living cells to reflect on their unique acoustic signatures. SymbioticA is a group founded by Oron Catts and Ionatt Zurr and located at the University of Western Australia in The School of Anatomy & Human Biology. They use living tissue as a sculptural form while engaging the ethical issues surrounding this often controversial art form.SymbioticA's latest exhibition created by Guy Ben-Ary, BioKino: The living screen. Nano movies are projected over living canvas' (cornea, blood and skin), via a Bio projector (The projection is 500 microns in size). Shown in recreation fairground and vaudeville houses of earlier cinema, with costuming by award winning designers ericaamerica. Heather Ackroyd & Dan Harvey used photosynthesis to create "photographs" on grass. Natalie Jeremijenko has cloned trees to confound common understanding of the notion of the individual. Marta de Menezes has created butterflies with wing patterns produced by herself.
See also: biopunk, biotechnology, bionics, next nature. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bio Art". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Saturday, January 06, 2007
Rama Computer Cult
The Rama Computer Students were led by Frederick Lenz who called himself the Zen Master Rama. He organised the group under the appearance of Buddhism. He launched his own group when he started giving self-improvement seminars based on Eastern religions in 1980. He initially called himself Atmananda and based his teachings on Hinduism. Lenz called himself a spiritual teacher rather than a group or cult leader. His followers denied that they were members of a cult. He concentrated heavily on recruiting which resulted in hundreds of new members. People continued to follow him and he held publicly advertised classes until January 1988, when he was swamped by bad publicity from members who had left. His classes were then aimed at a smaller group of people who were invited as potential recruits. He used self-criticism tactics in group sessions. He had sexual relations with many women followers. He taught meditation techniques in his classes which some students found extremely helpful.
External links: Report critical of the Rama Computer Cult, Site dedicated to American Buddhism. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Rama Computer Cult". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Thursday, January 04, 2007
List of 10 longest-reigning popes
The 10 longest-reigning Popes whose reign lengths can be determined from contemporary historical data are the following:
-Pius IX (1846–1878): 31 years, 7 months and 23 days (11,560 days).
-John Paul II (1978–2005): 26 years, 5 months and 18 days (9,666 days).
-Leo XIII (1878–1903): 25 years, 5 months and 1 day (9,281 days).
-Pius VI (1775–1799): 24 years, 6 months and 15 days (8,962 days).
-Adrian I (772–795): 23 years, 10 months and 25 days (8,729 days).
-Pius VII (1800–1823): 23 years, 5 months and 7 days (8,560 days).
-Alexander III (1159–1181): 21 years, 11 months and 24 days (8,029 days). -St. Sylvester I (314–335): 21 years, 11 months and 1 day (8,005 days).
-St. Leo I (440–461): 21 years, 1 month, and 13 days. (7,713 days).
-Urban VIII (1623–1644): 20 years, 11 months and 24 days (7,664 days).
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List of 10 longest-reigning popes". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Wednesday, January 03, 2007
Effects of Christmas on the Environment
The celebration of Christmas has both positive and negative effects on the environment.
Positive effects: Polluting industries often cease their activities during the holidays, and the atmosphere, land, and water are able to recover a little from the effects of pollution.  (See Week-Long Holiday Vacation in the article German Christmas traditions.) When the amount of commuting to and from work is reduced, there is a corresponding reduction in motor vehicle emissions.
Christmas motivates many people to donate to charity, including charities working to mitigate environmental damage.
Negative effects: The exchange of consumer products in Christmas wrapping, many of which will be unneeded and/or unappreciated, contributes to the sending of consumer waste to landfills, unless consumers choose to regift them.  The cultivation of Christmas trees for display during a few weeks, before they are sent to landfills, represents a monoculture which sometimes reduces the use of arable land for agriculture.
Artificial Christmas trees are manufactured by processes which may have harmful effects on the environment.
(See: Christmas_tree#Environmental_issues.) Forum: Artificial Christmas Trees ~ Vrai ou faux? Christmas decorations for homes and for Christmas trees are consumer products which are sometimes discarded to landfills. Electric Christmas lights consume electricity, which, by most means of production, harms the environment.   Candles and oil lamps can be fire hazards. Increased travel to visit friends and relatives generally involves the consumption of fossil fuels. One solution to counter the negative effects is alternative giving.
External links: An Environmental Christmas Message, Christmas is Damaging the Environment, Report Says, The Hidden Cost of Christmas votelink.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Effects of Christmas on the environment". Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.
Monday, January 01, 2007
The Electric Universe is a collection of ideas currently advocated by Wallace Thornhill and Don Scott primarily on the internet about astronomy and planetary science, based on the notion that electricity and plasma physics play a much larger role in astrophysics than considered by mainstream science. Proponents claim that:
-The Sun and stars are powered by an external electric current rather than by nuclear fusion as in conventional astronomy.
-Electrical discharges in the form of megalightning and caused by electrical discharge machining, is responsible for many planetary features including arachnoids, chaos terrain, craters, Martian spiders, and rilles.
-Standard physical cosmology should be rejected in favoring of nonstandard plasma cosmology.
-The big bang, solar nebula hypothesis, black holes, dark energy, dark matter and standard models of planetary formation are not based in reality.
-Historically, cosmic electrical activity has been much greater than we see today. As an example, proponents cite rock art and various megaliths with the claim that they represent an intense ancient aurora-like phenomenon. Incorporating aspects of Velikovskian catastrophism and comparative mythology gives rise to various ancient histories, mythologies and iconography.
Both critics such as skeptics and members of the mainstream scientific community, and also some EU advocates, have called EU a catastrophist pseudoscience, as there is neither sufficient evidence, mathematical models, nor peer review, to treat it as a scientific theory. The concept is absent from refereed scientific literature.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Electric universe". This entry is a fragment of a larger work. Link may die if entry is finally removed or merged.